包括但不限于： Hopper与Surrealism(吹爆马格利特和基里科)， Ashcan School。
It was his vision that made his paintings significant, that penetrate souls, not his Realistic style. Hopper painted from everyday life scenes, cityscapes and nature views of America in the Modern era. But, making realistic paintings for Hopper does not mean to imitate directly from reality. He painted his vision of the reality; added some elements, deleted some, to deliver the concept of reality without any redundancy.
However, he was not disconnected from society; he and his wife used to go to movies, theaters, and galleries quite often. He read a lot and was very aware of society. He might not like engaging in groups or social activities, but he knew and watched what was going on around him, and indeed, he cared for society and culture. Hopper was an observer of his country and people.